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Second Language Learning and Use Strategies: Clarifying the Issues


This paper considers five problematic issues that have arisen in dealing with language learning strategy terminology: the distinction between the term strategy and other terms, the issue of whether learning strategies need to be conscious in order to be referred to as strategies, criteria for classifying language learning and use strategies, a broadening of the concept of strategic competence, and the linking of learning strategies.

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The Impact of Strategies-Based Instruction on Speaking a Foreign Language


This research report outlines the methodology and results of a study done at the University of Minnesota on the benefits of providing second language learners with formal training in the application of strategies across skills, with an emphasis on speaking.

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Preliminary Item Response Theory Analysis of the University of Minnesota CLA Language Proficiency Tests in French, German, and Spanish


This document provides preliminary item analysis findings based on data collected on entrance and graduation language proficiency tests combining the results based on an item response theory model with classical test theory analyses.

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In 1990, the Department of Education established the first Language Resource Centers (LRCs) at U.S. universities in response to the growing national need for expertise and competence in foreign languages. Now, twenty-five years later, Title VI of the Higher Education Act supports sixteen LRCs, creating a national network of resources to promote and improve the teaching and learning of foreign languages.

LRCs create language learning and teaching materials, offer professional development opportunities for language instructors, and conduct and disseminate research on foreign language learning. All LRCs engage in efforts that enable U.S. citizens to better work, serve, and lead.

8 Areas of Focus

Each LRC has a unique story and mission, but all LRC work is organized around eight basic areas:
  • Research
  • Teaching materials
  • Digital tools and resources
  • Assessment
  • Professional development
  • Less commonly taught languages initiatives
  • K-12 initiatives
  • Outreach and dissemination

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You may also contact each LRC individually by locating their directory information in the Meet the LRCs menu.


The U.S. Department of Education Title VI provides funding for Language Resource Centers. The contents of this website do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education nor imply endorsement by the federal government.
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