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Computer-mediated communication in foreign language education: An annotated bibliography
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This literature review is designed to be an online resource to aid teachers and researchers seeking information on computer technology and its applications in second language teaching. It consists primarily of journal article summaries, along with a limited number of book summaries. The works covered deal not only with technology in second language pedagogy, but also with a variety of relevant communications and linguistic concerns.

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Explicit and incidental instruction and learner awareness
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Explicit instruction can facilitate learner awareness of the surface features of a language, but does not guarantee it. Similarly, learners in an incidental learning condition are not necessarily unaware. This study investigated the development of awareness, among Japanese ESL learners, of rules of thumb for the use of zero and definite articles with place names under an explicit instruction condition, in which learners were given the rules plus examples, and an incidental instruction condition, in which learners responded to sentences containing examples. All instruction was computerized. Instruction was given in English and was followed by a twenty-question debriefing interview conducted in the learners' L1 in order to assess their awareness. The findings show that awareness could develop under either condition, but that the explicit condition was much more facilitative. The study also found a very strong relationship between awareness and improved learner performance.

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Explicit instruction and JFL learners
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This paper reports on a semester-long study of the explicit instruction of Japanese discourse markers to English-speaking, intermediate learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language. It was found that the learners improved their use of DMs, particularly to manage fundamental aspects of their extended tellings: openings, presentation of content and closings.

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In 1990, the Department of Education established the first Language Resource Centers (LRCs) at U.S. universities in response to the growing national need for expertise and competence in foreign languages. Now, twenty-five years later, Title VI of the Higher Education Act supports sixteen LRCs, creating a national network of resources to promote and improve the teaching and learning of foreign languages.

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